تعرف على تاريخ الأغواط

الأغواط

الأغواط, هي إحدى المدن الجزائرية. تشتهر بالنخيل وببساتينها الضاربة في جذور التاريخ، وأول نشأتها كانت على هضبات عرفت بتزقرارين، أما بساتينها وأراضيها الفلاحية فبعضها يقع شمال تلك الهضاب، ويسمى الآن بالواحات الشمالية وبعضها الآخر يقع جنوبها ويسمى الواحات الجنوبية ويمتد خارج الواحاتين سهلان كانا يستغلان في زراعة الحبوب مسمى الأول الضاية القبليه (الجنوبية) ويسمى الثاني الضاية الغريبة.
تتميز المدينة بطابعها العربي الأصيل الذي يعود إلى مؤسسيها العرب الهلالين خلال العصور الوسطى في القرن ال11 م، ولحسن حظ المدينة أن المستعمر الفرنسي قرر أن يجعلها منطقة ذات حكم عسكري فاكتفى ببناء الثكنات ولم يتدخل في المعمار كثيرا.
تقع على خط الطول 2 درجة و 55 دقيقة شرقاً وخط العرض 33 درجة و 48 دقيقة شمالاً. ويخترقها وادي مزي الذي يتكون عند جبال العمور ويجري باتجاه الشرق. تقوم المدينة فوق تلين متفرعين من جبل تيزيغرارين (و هو آخر امتداد لجبال الأطلس الصحراوي) ويقسمانها قسمين: قديم وحديث، وتقوم الأحياء الحديثة فوق التل الجنوبي وفيها مباني الحكومة ومنشآت عسكرية، أما القسم القديم فيحتل التل الشمالي وما يزال يحتفظ بطابعه وأسلوب عمارته الصحراوية. وتنتشر بساتين النخيل والأشجار المثمرة في ناحية الجنوب والشرق وعلى جانبي وادي مزي الذي يدعى وادي جدي في مجراه الأسفل بنواحي بسكرة، وقد أقيمت سدود ثلاثة على هذا الوادي لري البساتين والأراضي الزراعية التي تنتج التمور والفواكه والخضر والحبوب. وتمنح البساتين الواحة منظراً فريداً لوقوعها على الشريط الذي تلتقي فيه الصحراء في الجنوب مع جبال الأطلس الصحراوي عند الطريق الذي يربط مدينة الجزائر بوسط إفريقية، ومساحة الواحة 253 هكتاراً، وهذه البساتين هي سبب تسميتها بالأغواط (جمع غوط أي المطمئن من الأرض ومجتمع النبات والماء)، وكل البساتين في الأغواط أملاك خاصة ومتداخلة تداخلاً كثيفاً، وتتخللها دروب ريفية متشابكة ومعظمها مروي بشبكة من القنوات الصغيرة تعرف بالسواقي.
إن وقوع الأغواط على ملتقى الطرق التي تتفرع نحو الغرب إلى أولاد سيدي الشيخ، وإلى الجنوب نحو مزاب وورجلان (ورقلة)، وإلى الشرق نحو الزيبان (بسكرة)، وإلى الشمال نحو وهران وقسنطينة جعل منها مركزاً تجارياً مهماً.
تشتهر المدينة بأحياءها وأزقتها القديمة كزقاق الحجاج والضلعة وسيدي يانس و الغربيةوالصفاح بالإضافة إلى ساحتها الشهيرة “رحبة الزيتون” وجنان البايلك.
و كذا أحياءها الأخرى كالمعمورة والمقام والشطيط والمقطع الظهراوي والمقطع القبلي بالإضافة إلى أحياء أُُستحدثت حديثا كالواحات الشمالية، الوئام… إلخ، وهنالك قرية برج السنوسي التي تعد امتداداَ طبيعيا للمدينة في الضفة الشرقية لوادي مزي.

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